In Your Face Artificial Intelligence: Regulating the Collection and Use of Face Data (Part II)

The technologies behind “face data” collection, detection, recognition, and affect (emotion) analysis were previously summarized. Use cases for face data, and reported concerns about the proliferation of face data collection efforts and instances of face data misuse were also briefly discussed.

In this follow-on post, a proposed “face data” definition is explored from a governance perspective, with the purpose of providing more certainty as to when heightened requirements ought to be imposed on those involved in face data collection, storage, and use.  This proposal is motivated in part by the increased risk of identity theft and other instances of misuse from unauthorized disclosure of face data, but also recognizes that overregulation could subject persons and entities to onerous requirements.

Illinois’ decade-old Biometric Information Privacy Act (“BIPA”) (740 ILCS 14/1 (2008)), which has been widely cited by privacy hawks and asserted against social media and other companies in US federal and various state courts (primarily Illinois and California), provides a starting point for a uniform face data definition. The BIPA defines “biometric identifier” to include a scan of a person’s face geometry. The scope and meaning of the definition, however, remains ambiguous despite close scrutiny by several courts. In Monroy v. Shutterfly, Inc., for example, a federal district court found that mere possession of a digital photograph of a person and “extraction” of information from such photograph is excluded from the BIPA:

“It is clear that the data extracted from [a] photograph cannot constitute “biometric information” within the meaning of the statute: photographs are expressly excluded from the [BIPA’s] definition of “biometric identifier,” and the definition of “biometric information” expressly excludes “information derived from items or procedures excluded under the definition of biometric identifiers.”

Slip. op. No. 16-cv-10984 (N.D. Ill. 2017). Despite that finding, the Monroy court concluded that a “scan of face geometry” under the statute’s definition includes a “scan” of a person’s face from a photograph (or a live scan of a person’s face geometry). Although not at issue in Monroy, the court did not address whether that BIPA applies when a scan of any part of a person’s face geometry from an image is insufficient to identify the person in the image. That is, the Monroy holding arguably applies to any data made by a scan, even if that data by itself cannot lead to identifying anyone.

By way of comparison, the European Union’s General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), which governs “personal data” (i.e., any information relating to an identified or identifiable natural person), will regulate biometric information when it goes into effect in late May 2018. Like the BIPA, the GDPR will place restrictions on “personal data resulting from specific technical processing relating to the physical, physiological or behavioural characteristics of a natural person, which allow or confirm the unique identification of that natural person, such as facial images or dactyloscopic data” (GDPR, Article 4) (emphasis added).  Depending on how EU nation courts interpret the GDPR generally, and Article 4 specifically, a process that creates any biometric data that relates to, or could lead to, or that allows one to identify a person, or allows one to confirm an identity of a person, is a potentially covered process under the GDPR.

Thus, to enhance clarity for potentially regulated individuals and companies dealing with US citizens, “face data” could be defined, as set forth below, in a way that considers a minimum quantity or quality of data below which a regulated entity would not be within the scope of the definition (and thus not subject to regulation):

“Face data” means data in the possession or control of a regulated entity obtained from a scan of a person’s face geometry or face attribute, as well as any information and data derived from or based on the geometry or attribute data, if in the aggregate the data in the possession or control of the regulated entity is sufficient for determining an identity of the person or the person’s emotional (physiological) state.

The term “determining an identity of the person or the person’s emotional (physiological) state” relates to any known computational or manual technique for identifying a person or that person’s emotions.

The term “is sufficient” is interpretable; it would need to be defined explicitly (or, as is often the case in legislation, left for the courts to fully interpret). The intent of “sufficient” is to permit the anonymization or deletion of data following the processing of video signals or images of a person’s face to avoid being categorized as possessing regulated face data (to the extent probabilistic models and other techniques could not be used to later de-anonymize or reconstruct the missing data and identify a person or that person’s emotional state). The burden of establishing the quality and quantity of face data that is insufficient for identification purposes should rest with the regulated entity that possesses or controls face data.

Face data could include data from the face of a “live” person captured by a camera (e.g., surveillance) as well as data extracted from existing media (e.g., stored images). It is not necessary, however, for the definition to encompass the mere virtual depiction or display of a person in a live video or existing image or video. Thus, digital pictures of friends or family on a personal smartphone would not be face data, and the owner of the phone should not be a regulated entity subject to face data governance. An app on that smartphone, however, that uses face detection algorithms to process the pictures for facial recognition and sends that data to a remote app server for storage and use (e.g., for extraction of emotion information) would create face data.

By way of other examples, a process involving pixel-level data extracted from an image (a type of “scan”) by a regulated entity  would create face data if that data, combined with any other data possessed or controlled by the entity, could be used in the aggregate to identify the person in the image or that person’s emotional state. Similarly, data and information reflecting changes in facial expressions by pixel-level comparisons of time-slice images from a video (also a type of scan) would be information derived from face data and thus would be regulated face data, assuming the derived data combined with other data owned or possessed could be used to identify the person in the image or the person’s emotional state.

Information about the relative positions of facial points based on facial action units could also be data derived from or based on the original scan and thus would be face data, assuming again that the data, combined with any other data possessed by a regulated entity, could be used to identify a person or that person’s emotional state. Classifications of a person’s emotional state (e.g., joy, surprise) based on extracted image data would also be information derived from or based on a person’s face data and thus would also be face data.

Features extracted using deep learning convolutions of an image of a person’s face could also be face data if the convolution information along with other data in the possession or control of a regulated entity could be used to identify a person or that person’s emotional state.

For banks and other institutions that use face recognition for authentication purposes, sufficient face data would obviously need to be in the banks possession at some point in time to positively identify a customer making a transaction. This could subject the institution to face data governance during that time period. In contrast, a social media platform that permits users to upload images of people but does not scan or otherwise process the images (such as by cross-referencing other existing data) would not create face data and thus would not subject the platform to face data governance, even if it also possessed tagged images of the same individuals in the uploaded images. Thus, the mere possession or control over images, even if the images could potentially contain identifying information, would not constitute face data. But, if a platform were to scan (process) the uploaded images for identification purposes or sell or provide the images uploaded by users to a third party that scans the images to extract face geometry or attributes data for purposes such as targeted advertising, could subject the platform and the third party to face data governance.

The proposed face data definition, which could be modified to include “body data” and “voice data,” is merely one example that US policymakers and stakeholders might consider in the course of assessing the scope of face data governance in the US.  The definition does not exclude the possibility that any number of exceptions, exclusions, and limitations could be implemented to avoid reaching actors and actions that should not be covered, while also maintaining consistency with existing laws and regulations. Also, the proposed definition is not intended to directly encompass specific artificial intelligence technologies used or created by a regulated entity to collect and use face data, including the underlying algorithms, models, networks, settings, hyper-parameters, processors, source code, etc.

In a follow-on post, possible civil penalties for harms caused by face data collection, storage, and use will be briefly considered, along with possible defenses a regulated person or entity may raise in litigation.

Patenting Artificial Intelligence Technology: 2018 Continues Upward Innovation Trend

If the number of patents issued in the first quarter of 2018 is any indication, artificial intelligence technology companies were busy a few years ago filing patents for machine learning inventions.

According to US Patent and Trademark Office records, the number of US “machine learning” patents issued to US applicants during the first quarter of 2018 rose 17% compared to the same time period in 2017. The number of US “machine learning” patents issued to any applicant (not just US applicants) rose nearly 19% during the same comparative time period. Mostly double-digit increases were also observed in the case of US origin and total US patents mentioning “neural network” or “artificial intelligence.” Topping the list of companies obtaining patents were IBM, Microsoft, Amazon, Google, and Intel.

The latest patent figures include any US issued patent in which “machine learning,” “artificial intelligence,” or “neural network” is mentioned in the patent’s invention description (to the extent those mentions were ancillary to the invention’s disclosed utility, the above figures are over-inclusive). Because patent applications may spend 1-3 years at the US Patent Office (or more, if claiming priority to earlier-filed patent applications), the Q1 2018 numbers are reflective of innovation activity possibly several years ago.

Republicans Propose Commission to Study Artificial Intelligence Impacts on National Security

Three Republican members of Congress are co-sponsoring a new bill (H.R. 5356) “To establish the National Security Commission on Artificial Intelligence.” Introduced by Rep. Stefanik (R-NY) on March 20, 2018, the bill would create a temporary 11-member Commission tasked with producing an initial report followed by comprehensive annual reports, each providing issue-specific recommendations about national security needs and related risks from advances in artificial intelligence, machine learning, and associated technologies.

Issues the Commission would review include AI competitiveness in the context of national and economic security, means to maintain a competitive advantage in AI (including machine learning and quantum computing), other country AI investment trends, workforce and education incentives to boost the number of AI workers, risks of advances in the military employment of AI by foreign countries, ethics, privacy, and data security, among others.

Unlike other Congressional bills of late (see H.R. 4625–FUTURE of AI Act; H.R. 4829–AI JOBS Act) that propose establishing committees under Executive Branch departments and constituted with both government employees and private citizens, H.R. 5356 would establish an independent Executive Branch commission made up exclusively of Federal employees appointed by Department of Defense and various Armed Services Committee members, with no private citizen members (ostensibly because of national security and security clearance issues).

Congressional focus on AI technologies has generally been limited to highly autonomous vehicles and vehicle safety, with other areas, such as military impacts, receiving much less attention. By way of contrast, the UK’s Parliament seems far ahead. The UK Parliament Select Committee on AI has already met over a dozen times since mid-2017 and its members have convened numerous public meetings to hear from dozens of experts and stakeholders representing various disciplines and economic sectors.

Industry Focus: The Rise of Data-Driven Health Tech Innovation

Artificial intelligence-based healthcare technologies have contributed to improved drug discoveries, tumor identification, diagnosis, risk assessments, electronic health records (EHR), and mental health tools, among others. Thanks in large part to AI and the availability of health-related data, health tech is one of the fastest growing segments of healthcare and one of the reasons why the sector ranks highest on many lists.

According to a 2016 workforce study by Georgetown University, the healthcare industry experienced the largest employment growth among all industries since December 2007, netting 2.3 million jobs (about an 8% increase). Fourteen percent of all US workers work in healthcare, making it the country’s largest employment center. According to the latest government figures, the US spends the most on healthcare per person ($10,348) than any other country. In fact, healthcare spending is nearly 18 percent of the US gross domestic product (GDP), a figure that is expected to increase. The healthcare IT segment is expected to grow at a CAGR greater than 10% through 2019. The number of US patents issued in 2017 for AI-infused healthcare-related inventions rose more than 40% compared to 2016.

Investment in health tech has led to the development of some impressive AI-based tools. Researchers at a major university medical center, for example, invented a way to use AI to identify from open source data the emergence of health-related events around the world. The machine learning system they’d created extracted useful information and classified it according to disease-specific taxonomies. At the time of its development ten years ago, the “supervised” and “unsupervised” natural language processing models were leaps ahead of what others were using at the time and earned the inventors national recognition. More recently, medical researchers have created a myriad of new technologies from innovative uses of machine learning technologies.

What most of the above and other health tech innovations today have in common is what drives much of the health tech sector: lots of data. Big data sets, especially labeled data, are needed by AI technologists to train and test machine learning algorithms that produce models capable of “learning” what to look for in new data. And there is no better place to find big data sets than in the healthcare sector. According to an article last year in the New England Journal of Medicine, by 2012 as much as 30% of the world’s stored data was being generated in the healthcare industry.

Traditional healthcare companies are finding value in data-driven AI. Biopharmaceutical company Roche’s recent announcement that it is acquiring software firm Flatiron Health Inc. for $1.9 billion illustrates the value of being able to access health-related data. Flatiron, led by former Google employees, makes software for real-time acquisition and analysis of oncology-specific EHR data and other structured and unstructured hospital-generated data for diagnostic and research purposes. Roche plans to leverage Flatiron’s algorithms–and all of its data–to enhance Roche’s ability to personalize healthcare strategies by way of accelerating the development of new cancer treatments. In a world powered by AI, where data is key to building new products that attract new customers, Roche is now tapped into one of the largest sources of labeled data.

Companies not traditionally in healthcare are also seeing opportunities in health-related data. Google’s AI-focused research division, for example, recently reported in Nature a promising use of so-called deep learning algorithms (a computation network structured to mimic how neurons fire in the brain) to make cardiovascular risk predictions from retinal image data. After training their model, Google scientists said they were able to identify and quantify risk factors in retinal images and generate patient-specific risk predictions.

The growth of available healthcare data and the infusion of AI health tech in the healthcare industry will challenge companies to evolve. Health tech holds the promise of better and more efficient research, manufacturing, and distribution of healthcare products and services, though some have also raised concerns about who will benefit most from these advances, bias in data sets, anonymizing data for privacy reasons, and other legal issues that go beyond healthcare, issues that will need to be addressed.

To be successful, tomorrow’s healthcare leaders may be those who have access to data that drives innovation in the health tech segment. This may explain why, according to a recent survey, healthcare CIOs whose companies plan spending increases in 2018 indicated that their investments will likely be directed first toward AI and related technologies.

Congress Takes Aim at the FUTURE of Artificial Intelligence

As the calendar turns over to 2018, artificial intelligence system developers will need to keep an eye on first of its kind legislation being considered in Congress. The “Fundamentally Understanding The Usability and Realistic Evolution of Artificial Intelligence Act of 2017,” or FUTURE of AI Act, is Congress’s first major step toward comprehensive regulation of the AI tech sector.

Introduced on December 22, 2017, companion bills S.2217 and H.R.4625 touch on a host of AI issues, their stated purposes mirroring concerns raised by many about possible problems facing society as AI technologies becomes ubiquitous. The bills propose to establish a federal advisory committee charged with reporting to the Secretary of Commerce on many of today’s hot button, industry-disrupting AI issues.

Definitions

Leaving the definition of “artificial intelligence” open for later modification, both bills take a broad brush at defining, inclusively, what an AI system is, what artificial general intelligence (AGI) means, and what are “narrow” AI systems, which presumably would each be treated differently under future laws and implementing regulations.

Under both measures, AI is generally defined as “artificial systems that perform tasks under varying and unpredictable circumstances, without significant human oversight, or that can learn from their experience and improve their performance,” and encompass systems that “solve tasks requiring human-like perception, cognition, planning, learning, communication, or physical action.” According to the bills’ sponsors, the more “human-like the system within the context of its tasks, the more it can be said to use artificial intelligence.”

While those definitions and descriptions include plenty of ambiguity, characteristic of early legislative efforts, the bills also provide several clarifying examples: AI involves technologies that think like humans, such as cognitive architectures and neural networks; those that act like humans, such as systems that can pass the Turing test or other comparable test via natural language processing, knowledge representation, automated reasoning, and learning; those using sets of techniques, including machine learning, that seek to approximate some cognitive task; and AI technologies that act rationally, such as intelligent software agents and embodied robots that achieve goals via perception, planning, reasoning, learning, communicating, decision making, and acting.

The bills describe AGI as “a notional future AI system exhibiting apparently intelligent behavior at least as advanced as a person across the range of cognitive, emotional, and social behaviors,” which is generally consistent with how many others view the concept of an AGI system.

So-called narrow AI is viewed as an AI system that addresses specific application areas such as playing strategic games, language translation, self-driving vehicles, and image recognition. Plenty of other AI technologies today employ what the sponsors define as narrow AI.

The FUTURE of AI Committee

Both the House and Senate versions would establish a FUTURE of AI advisory committee made up of government and private-sector members tasked with evaluating and reporting on AI issues.

The bills emphasize that the committee should consider accountability and legal rights issues, including identifying where responsibility lies for violations of laws by an AI system, and assessing the compatibility of international regulations involving privacy rights of individuals who are or will be affected by technological innovation relating to AI. The committee will evaluate whether advancements in AI technologies have or will outpace the legal and regulatory regimes implemented to protect consumers, and how existing laws, including those concerning data access and privacy (as discussed here), should be modernized to enable the potential of AI.

The committee will study workforce impacts, including whether and how networked, automated, AI applications and robotic devices will displace or create jobs and how any job-related gains from AI can be maximized. The committee will also evaluate the role ethical issues should take in AI development, including whether and how to incorporate ethical standards in the development and implementation of AI, as suggested by groups such as IEEE’s Global Initiative on Ethics of Autonomous and Intelligent Systems.

The committee will consider issues of machine learning bias through core cultural and societal norms, including how bias can be identified and eliminated in the development of AI and in the algorithms that support AI technologies. The committee will focus on evaluating the selection and processing of data used to train AI, diversity in the development of AI, the ways and places the systems are deployed and the potential harmful outcomes, and how ongoing dialogues and consultations with multi-stakeholder groups can maximize the potential of AI and further development of AI technologies that can benefit everyone inclusively.

The FUTURE of AI committee will also consider issues of competitiveness of the United States, such as how to create a climate for public and private sector investment and innovation in AI, and the possible benefits and effects that the development of AI may have on the economy, workforce, and competitiveness of the United States. The committee will be charged with reviewing AI-related education; open sharing of data and the open sharing of research on AI; international cooperation and competitiveness; opportunities for AI in rural communities (that is, how the Federal Government can encourage technological progress in implementation of AI that benefits the full spectrum of social and economic classes); and government efficiency (that is, how the Federal Government utilizes AI to handle large or complex data sets, how the development of AI can affect cost savings and streamline operations in various areas of government operations, including health care, cybersecurity, infrastructure, and disaster recovery).

Non-profits like AI Now and Future of Life, among others, are also considering many of the same issues. And while those groups primarily rely on private funding, the FUTURE of AI advisory committee will be funded through Congressional appropriations or through contributions “otherwise made available to the Secretary of Commerce,” which may include donation from private persons and non-federal entities that have a stake in AI technology development. The bills limit private donations to less than or equal to 50% of the committee’s total funding from all sources.

The bills’ sponsors says that AI’s evolution can greatly benefit society by powering the information economy, fostering better informed decisions, and helping unlock answers to questions that are presently unanswerable. Their sentiment that fostering the development of AI should be done in a way that maximizes AI’s benefit to society provides a worthy goal for the FUTURE of AI advisory committee’s work. But it also suggests how AI companies may wish to approach AI technology development efforts, especially in the interim period before future legislation becomes law.

Patenting Artificial Intelligence: Innovation Spike Follows Broader Market Trend

If you received a US patent for a machine learning invention recently, count yourself among a record number of innovators named on artificial intelligence technology patents issued in 2017. There’s also good chance you worked for one of the top companies earning patents for machine learning, neural network, and other AI technologies, namely IBM, Amazon, Cisco, Google, and Microsoft, according to public patent records (available through mid-December). This year’s increase in the number of issued patents reflects similar record increases in the level of investment dollars flowing to AI start-ups and the number of AI tech sector M&A deals in 2017.

As the chart indicates, US patents directed to “machine learning” jumped over 20% in 2017 compared to 2016, and that follows an even larger estimated 38% annual increase between 2015 and 2016. Even discounting the patents that merely mention machine learning in passing, the numbers are still quite impressive, especially given the US Supreme Court’s 2014 Alice Corp. Pty Ltd. v. CLS Bank decision, which led to the invalidation of many software and business method patents and likely also put the brakes on software-related patent application filings (as explained here) beginning in 2014. So the recent jump in issued patents for “machine learning,” “artificial intelligence,” and “neural network” inventions suggests that specific applications of those technologies remain patentable despite Alice.

A jump in issued patents in a highly competitive, increasingly crowded market segment, could lead to an uptick in patent-related infringement. Already, estimates by some suggest that 35% more companies expect to face IP litigation in 2018 compared to 2017.

The AI Summit New York City: Takeaways For the Legal Profession

This week, business, technology, and academic thought leaders in Artificial Intelligence are gathered at The AI Summit in New York City, one of the premier international conferences offered for AI professionals. Below, I consider two of the three takeaways from Summit Day 1, published yesterday by AI Business, from the perspective of lawyers looking for opportunities in the burgeoning AI market.

“1. The tech landscape is changing fast – with big implications for businesses”

If a year from now your law practice has not fielded at least one query from a client about AI technologies, you are probably going out of your way to avoid the subject. It is almost universally accepted that AI technologies in one form or another will impact nearly every industry. Based on recently-published salary data, the industries most active in AI are tech (think Facebook, Amazon, Alphabet, Microsoft, Netflix, and many others), financial services (banks and financial technology companies or “fintech”), and computer infrastructure (Amazon, Nvidia, Intel, IBM, and many others; in areas such as chips for growing computational speed and throughput, and cloud computing for big data storage needs).

Of course, other industries are also seeing plenty of AI development. The automotive industry, for example, has already begun adopting machine learning, computer vision, and other AI technologies for autonomous vehicles. The robotics and chatbot industries have seen great strides lately, both in terms of humanoid robotic development, and consumer-machine interaction products such as stationary and mobile digital assistants (e.g., personal robotic assistants, as well as utility devices like autonomous vacuums). And of course the software as a service industry, which leverages information from a company’s own data, such as human resources data, process data, healthcare data, etc., seems to offers new software solutions to improve efficiencies every day.

All of this will translate into consumer adoption of specific AI technologies, which is reported to already be at 10% and growing. The fast pace of technology development and adoption may translate into new business opportunities for lawyers, especially for those who invest time to learning about AI technologies. After all, as in any area of law, understanding the challenges facing clients is essential for developing appropriate legal strategies, as well as for targeting business development resources.

“2. AI is a disruptive force today, not tomorrow – and business must adapt”

Adapt or be left behind is a cautionary tale, but one with plenty of evidence demonstrating that it holds true in many situations.

Lawyers and law firms as an institution are generally slow to change, often because things that disrupt the status quo are viewed through a cautionary lens. This is not surprising, given that a lawyer’s work often involves thoughtful spotting of potential risks, and finding ways to address those risks. A fast-changing business landscape racing to keep up with the latest in AI technologies may be seen as inherently risky, especially in the absence of targeted laws and regulations providing guidance, as is the case today in the AI industry. Even so, exploring how to adapt one’s law practice to a world filled with AI technologies should be near the top of every lawyer’s list of things to consider for 2018.

How Privacy Law’s Beginnings May Suggest An Approach For Regulating Artificial Intelligence

A survey conducted in April 2017 by Morning Consult suggests most Americans are in favor of regulating artificial intelligence technologies. Of 2,200 American adults surveyed, 71% said they strongly or somewhat agreed that there should be national regulation of AI, while only 14% strongly or somewhat disagreed (15% did not express a view).

Technology and business leaders speaking out on whether to regulate AI fall into one of two camps: those who generally favor an ex post, case-by-case, common law approach, and those who prefer establishing a statutory and regulatory framework that, ex ante, sets forth clear do’s and don’ts and penalties for violations. (If you’re interested in learning about the challenges of ex post and ex ante approaches to regulation, check out Matt Scherer’s excellent article, “Regulating Artificial Intelligence Systems: Risks, Challenges, Competencies, and Strategies,” published in the Harvard Journal of Law and Technology (2016)).

Advocates for a proactive regulatory approach caution that the alternative is fraught with predictable danger. Elon Musk for one, notes that, “[b]y the time we’re reactive in A.I., regulation’s too late.” Others, including leaders of some of the biggest AI technology companies in the industry, backed by lobbying organizations like the Information Technology Industry Council (ITI), feel that the hype surrounding AI does not justify quick Congressional action at this time.

Musk criticized this wait-and-see approach. “Normally, the way regulation’s set up,” he said, “a whole bunch of bad things happen, there’s a public outcry, and then after many years, a regulatory agency is set up to regulate that industry. There’s a bunch of opposition from companies who don’t like being told what to do by regulators, and it takes forever. That in the past has been bad but not something which represented a fundamental risk to the existence of civilization.”

Assuming AI regulation is inevitable, how should regulators (and legislators) approach such a formidable task? After all, AI technologies come in many forms, and their uses extend across multiple industries, including some already burdened with regulation. The history of privacy law may provide the answer.

Without question, privacy concerns, and privacy laws, touch on AI technology use and development. That’s because so much of today’s human-machine interactions involving AI are powered by user-provided or user-mined data. Search histories, images people appear in on social media, purchasing habits, home ownership details, political affiliations, and many other data points are well-known to marketers and others whose products and services rely on characterizing potential customers using, for example, machine learning algorithms, convolutional neural networks, and other AI tools. In the field of affective computing, human-robot and human-chatbot interactions are driven by a person’s voice, facial features, heart rate, and other physiological features, which are the percepts that the AI system collects, processes, stores, and uses when deciding actions to take, such as responding to user queries.

Privacy laws evolved from a period during late nineteenth century America when journalists were unrestrained in publishing sensational pieces for newspapers or magazines, basically the “fake news” of the time. This Yellow Journalism, as it was called, prompted legal scholars to express a view that people had a “right to be let alone,” setting in motion the development of a new body of law involving privacy. The key to regulating AI, as it was in the development of regulations governing privacy, may be the recognition of a specific personal right that is, or is expected to be, infringed by AI systems.

In the case of privacy, attorneys Samuel Warren and Louis Brandeis (later, Justice Brandeis) were the first to articulate a personal privacy right. In The Right of Privacy, published in the Harvard Law Review in 1890, Warren and Brandeis observed that “the press is overstepping in every direction the obvious bounds of propriety and of decency. Gossip…has become a trade.” They contended that “for years there has been a feeling that the law must afford some remedy for the unauthorized circulation of portraits of private persons.” They argued that a right of privacy was entitled to recognition because “in every [] case the individual is entitled to decide whether that which is his shall be given to the public.” A violation of the person’s right of privacy, they wrote, should be actionable.

Soon after, courts began recognizing the right of privacy in civil cases. By 1960, in his seminal review article entitled Privacy (48 Cal.L.Rev 383), William Prosser wrote, “In one form or another,” the right of privacy “was declared to exist by the overwhelming majority of the American courts.” That led to uniform standards. Some states enacted limited or sweeping state-specific statutes, replacing the common law with statutory provisions and penalties. Federal appeals courts weighed in when conflicts between state law arose. This slow progression from initial recognition of a personal privacy right in 1890, to today’s modern statutes and expansive development of common law, won’t appeal to those pushing for regulation of AI now.

Even so, the process has to begin somewhere, and it could very well start with an assessment of the personal rights that should be recognized arising from interactions with or the use of AI technologies. Already, personal rights recognized by courts and embodied in statutes apply to AI technologies. But there is one personal right, potentially unique to AI technologies, that has been suggested: the right to know why (or how) an AI technology took a particular action (or made a decision) affecting a person.

Take, for example, an adverse credit decision by a bank that relies on machine learning algorithms to decide whether a customer should be given credit. Should that customer have the right to know why (or how) the system made the credit-worthiness decision? FastCompany writer Cliff Kuang explored this proposition in his recent article, “Can A.I. Be Taught to Explain Itself?” published in the New York Times (November 21, 2017).

If AI could explain itself, the banking customer might want to ask it what kind of training data was used and whether the data was biased, or whether there was an errant line of python coding to blame, or whether the AI gave the appropriate weight to the customer’s credit history. Given the nature of AI technologies, some of these questions, and even more general ones, may only be answered by opening the AI black box. But even then it may be impossible to pinpoint how the AI technology made its decision. In Europe, “tell me why/how” regulations are expected to become effective in May 2018. As I will discuss in a future post, many practical obstacles face those wishing to build a statute or regulatory framework around the right of consumers to demand from businesses that their AI explain why it made or took a particular adverse action.

Regulation of AI will likely happen. In fact, we are already seeing the beginning of direct legislative/regulatory efforts aimed at the autonomous driving industry. Whether interest in expanding those efforts to other AI technologies grows or lags may depend at least in part on whether people believe they have personal rights at stake in AI, and whether those rights are being protected by current laws and regulations.